Technologies

Optimization of production processes at light and food industry enterprises, as well as agricultural enterprises, through introduction of innovative environmentally clean technologies

Production enterprises of light industry and agro-industrial complex facilities require switching to a brand new clean technology, taking into account the load on the environment that is growing every day.

All the developed technologies suggested for implementation are based on the use of associations of microbial cultures and their metabolites, enzymatic preparations and metabolic byproducts of biological objects.

Uniqueness of the technologies consists in the reduced use of aggressive chemical reagents and processes requiring high-temperature modes and overpressure, which will generally make it possible to obtain unique products with specified characteristics. With this, the load on the environment will be reduced in the area of production facilities; intensity of technological processes will increase, and, which is just as important, profitable production that fully complies with the requirements of the environmental protection legislation will be created.

Cooperation

Cooperation with light industry enterprises from the Republic of Belarus, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, the Republic of Uzbekistan, etc.



The use of enzymatic preparations is a promising method of optimization of tanning production processes.

Enzymatic technologies of OOO “Ferment” in tanning production make it possible to intensify soaking and ashing processes, reduce introduction of chemical materials, increase the productivity of work and the output area of semi-finished products, as well as reduce costs of decontamination of used water; the combination of these factors gives a significant economic effect.

Soaking processes

Soaking is a long process that requires introduction of a lot of chemical auxiliary agents.

The use of enzymatic products in soaking processes makes it possible to significantly accelerate de-preservation of raw leather and prepare it for further process stages of tanning production. Inter-fibre substances and protein and carbohydrate complexes that are the main components of the subcutaneous tissue are removed from the secondary cuticle. As a result of irrigating and soluble proteins washing out in the process of soaking, the inner surface of structural elements of the dermis increases and its physico-chemical properties change.

A properly watered hide becomes soft, flexible and able to interact well with chemical substances in the course of further processing.

Enzymatic de-hairing / ashing

Soaking and ashing processes in tanning production are the heaviest in terms of load on treatment facilities and environmental situation in the location of tanning enterprises.

Introduction of enzymatic technologies for de-hairing / ashing of raw leather makes it possible to:

  • Reduce the classic chemical means applied during the stages of de-hairing and ashing (sodium sulphide and calcium hydroxide) by more than 70%
  • Reduce collagen losses in the leather during soaking and ashing processes
  • Ensure high purity of de-haired leather without undercoast
  • Improve tensile strength of finished leather
  • Reduce wastewater treatment costs, as well as improve the environmental situation at the plant in general.
Processing of exotic types of raw leather

New specialized enzymatic complexes and technologies of their usage are developed for treatment of such exotic types of raw leather as:

  • ostrich,
  • crocodile,
  • shark ray, etc.

Usage of enzymes in textile industry covers nearly all the process stages. Amylases are used for starch sizing removal from the fibres of the textile warp. Cellulases are actively used for treatment of textile products and materials: creation of coloring effects and denim washing (bio-stoning), bio-polishing of knitted fabric and products based on cotton and mixed fabrics.

De-sizing

The main task of desizing is the removal of the sizing material from the fabric, which is specially applied to the warp yarn in order to give it strength before weaving. Acids and oxidizers are typically used for this purpose, as they hydrolyze the starch and reduce the degree of its polymerization. However, the use of these substances is associated with a certain risk, since their destructive effect on cellulose fiber can not be excluded.

The use of ENZYTEX enzymatic products helps to avoid these problems, since their main advantage lies in their high efficiency and selective starch influence without damaging the fiber.

Bio-brewing

The purpose of this stage is to remove natural cellulose impurities, as well as the impurities deposited in fiber during spinning and weaving.

Enzymatic treatment of cotton fabrics with use of acidic or alkaline pectinase allows to remove more than 70% of pectin substances and results in provision of the capillarity of cotton fabrics at the level above 100 mm/h. In the process of the biobrewing of linen and semi-linen fabrics, partial removal of non-cellulose impurities (pectins and hemicelluloses) and delignification is provided.

Biopolishing and final conditioning

Consumer properties of knitted fabric and goods from natural and artificial cellulose fibres can be improved by their treatment with ENZYTEX product.

Biostoning and colouristic effects

Jeans are one of the most popular kind of clothes in the world. Most of the denim products are subjected to special treatment for giving them a fashionable slightly “worn out” look. Traditionally, so-called washing with stones (pumice stone) has been used in order to solve this task, due to which abrasive action the colorant is partly removed from the cloth surface.

Today, enzymatic processing of denim clothes with ENZYTEX products is used instead of the traditional environmentally unfriendly washing with stones, resulting in partial colorant removal, due to which the clothers acquire appearance of “brewed denim”.

The use of enzymatic agents in cellulose and paper production opens wide prospects in modernization of traditional technologies as well as in modification of cellulose fibers in the production of cellulose and paper.

Today, works are performed for creation of a complex environmentally safe approach to modernization of cellulose and paper production, as well as disposal of waste and environmental pollution.

Production of fermented plant feeds

Technologies developed make it possible to obtain feed products with nutritional profile that is close to perfect.

Technologies of production of protein products for feed purposes with improved nutritional properties obtained by fermentation of plant crops with high protein content.

Today, deficit of feed protein is observed throughout the world.

This problem is solved by increasing the areas for cultivation of soy and other grain and bean crops. However, the existing situation with the deficit of feed protein has influenced the development of technologies for rational use of the available plant raw protein through the use of modern innovative bio-technology methods.

The cost of protein-based feed products is nearly in direct proportion to the share of proteins in these products.

Today, many plant-based and animal-based protein sources can be found in the market. They are all distinguished by their nutritional value, balance of the amino acid profile, digestibility and the possibility of including in the diet of farm animals.

Despite the fact that animal-based feeds are the most valuable protein sources in terms of amino acid profile, the trend for limitation of using such products in the diet is growing today throughout the world. Therefore, more and more attention is paid to plant-based protein sources and new bio-technological methods of its processing.

When selecting a source of plant-based feed protein, special attention is paid to amino acid profile of the protein, its digestibility, as well  as presence of anti-nutritional factors that hinder healthy development of the animal’s body and cause diseases and death.

The combination of these parameters provides an adequate assessment of nutritional value of a single unit of protein products.

Despite the undoubted value of soy as the main source of plant protein in the diet of food-producing animals, its use is strictly limited due to a significant number of anti-nutritional factors. Namely:

  • Biologically active proteins known as trypsin inhibitors.

    These proteins are not digested by stomach pepsin and enter the duodenum in active form. In the duodenum, they bind to the pancreatic enzyme trypsin, inactivating its effect on the feed substrate by 90–95%. As a result, digestion of soybean meal proteins is stopped at the stage of polypeptides, which are not subjected to absorption in the intestine. At the same time, further digestion of all non-soy proteins in the diet is stopped. Polypeptides serve as a good growing medium for opportunistic and pathogenic microflora, which in combination with losses of nutrients causes acute digestive disorders in animals.

  • High urease activity.

    Urease enzyme transforms urea into ammonia, and excessive administration of this enzyme with feed leads to ammonia poisoning of the body.

  • Presence of protein antigens, glycinin and β-conglycinin being the most important ones.

    These high-molecular proteins that make up nearly 50% of the total share of proteins in soy are characterized by difficult hydrolyzation in the gastrointestinal tract of an animal and cause severe allergic reactions, especially in young mammals, whose gastrointestinal tract is not yet fully formed.

  • Non-starchy water-soluble oligo-saccharides, in particular α-1,6-galactosides (stachyose, raffinose, verbaxose, etc.)

    Soluble carbohydrates stachyose, raffinose and verbaxose due to the presence of alpha-galactazide bonds are almost not digested by the body and are transferred to the large intestine, where it serves as a breeding ground for bacteria, causing inflammatory processes, diarrhea and allergic reactions. In the future, it leads to a reduction in digestibility of protein and other nutrients, reduced growth of live weight and increased conversion of combined feeds.

  • Soybeans are distinguished by a high content of phytic acid, which blocks absorption of the necessary minerals in the gastrointestinal tract — calcium, magnesium, copper, iron and especially zinc.
  • Compounds giving bean flavor and reducing the factor of consumption of the feed by productive animals and poultry: 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol and 1-octen-3-ol.
The goal of the development of the technology of soybean meal fermentation for the research group of OOO “Ferment” consisted in obtaining a high-protein plant-based feed product with improved nutritional properties.

We attempted to solve three main tasks at once:

  1. Naturally increase the share of raw protein in the end product. This is achieved by direct effect of a specially selected association of microorganisms and commercial forms of self-produced enzymatic products by reducing the quantity of dry fibre and non-digestible hydrocarbons in the product.
  2. Transform the available protein potential of soybean meal into protein fractions that are available for digestion by monogastric animals — peptides and free amino acids; oligo-sugars and fats — into easily digestible compounds: “children’s food”.
  3. Deprive the feed product of the harmful effect of anti-nutritional factors characteristic of soy. This will help improve nutritional properties of the feed product.

Scientific and practical work resulted in the development of technology of experimental-industrial production of a fermented high-protein feed product with the following parameters:

Quality indicators (pilot sample):
Raw protein, % 57,7
High protein digestibility 95-96%
Raw fibre, % 4,5
Amino acids, g/100 g
Asparagic acid 6,33±0,007
Threonine 2,46±0,025
Serine 2,96±0,004
Glutamic acid 9,3±0,0001
Glycine 2,19±0,040
Alanine 2,71±0,003
Cysteine 1,56±0,012
Valine 2,42±0,001
Methionine 0,64±0,007
Isoleucine 1,86±0,015
Leucine 4,6±0,044
Tyrosine 1,91±0,004
Phenylalanine 2,35±0,067
Histidine 2,51±0,068
Lysine 3,38±0,009
Arginine 4,49±0,010
Proline 4,09±0,012
Tryptophan 0,58±0,033
Sum of amino acids, g 56,34
Anti-nutritional factors
Urease activity, pH units ˂ 0,05
Trypsin inhibitors, mg/g of dry matter ˂ 0,25
Wistaria, mg/g of dry matter ˂ 3
β-con. glycine in., mg/g of dry matter ˂ 2
Lectins, µg/g of dry matter ˂ 1
Raffinose, % n.d.
Stachyose, % n.d.

Technology of production of the new protein feed additive provides for careful modes of drying of finished products, which makes it possible to fully preserve the valuable amino acid potential of the product, including the most thermally labial sulphur-containing amino acids, such as cystine and methionine.

High protein is the most valuable part of the diet. This is the sole and irreplaceable source of amino acids for synthesis of animal protein. Protein deficit leads to a reduction in the milk, meat, wool and egg productivity. Lack of general energy in the diet reduces the growth rate of young animals and productivity of adult animals.

Specially selected association of effective probiotic microorganisms with anti-bacterial effect dissolves oligo-saccharides (including the ones unavailable to the animal) and reduces pH in the stomach, improving activity of digestion enzymes.

Enrichment of feed with live forms of useful microbes — yoghurt for animals. Easily digestible plant peptides are what is required for powerful growth and development of piglets and young poultry.

Specially developed multi-enzymatic complex for production of highly nutritional plant-based feed with a large share of reducing sugars.

Depending on the economic needs, one of two technologies of production of grain molasses is recommended:

  • technology 1 suggest the use of cavitation type installations with daily demand exceeding 2 tons of molasses. Duration of the process is 1.5 hours, which allows for up to 4 brewing operations (4 tons).
  • technology 2 includes mixer with heat insulation for production of 2 tons of molasses daily. Duration of the technological process is up to 8 hours, but without using additional energy sources to maintain the temperature mode.

The problem of creating a balanced diet in terms of sugar-protein ratio is especially relevant. Sugar deficit reduces digestibility of nutrients, while the use of concentrates has low efficiency.

However, diets with high concentrate contents cause even more harm to the industry due to low economic payback and high non-productive rate of animal death, as well as the emergence of barrenness in livestock and increased milk somatics.

Presence of high doses of sugars is especially relevant not only for milk animal breeding, but for the development of processing industry as well.

Milk only has high quality indicators (including in terms of lactose) when the cow gets all the necessary ingredients from the feed.

Traditional sources of carbohydrates in animal diets are:

  • molasses — byproduct of sugar beets, containing 45–60% of simple sugars. However, certain limitations are in place:
    1. uncontrolled introduction into the diet (over 20%) inevitably causes acidosis;
    2. can be included in the diet of lambs only in case of normal work of the rumen;
    3. high nitrate content, which has an adverse effect on animal health;
    4. seasonality — in the sufficient amount, 3 out of 12 months.
  • fodder beets are not currently widely used as a feed ingredient.
  • sugar, glycerine, fat and propylene glycol are distinguished by high costs.
  • liquid polysaccharides — grain and starch byproduct. The use is restricted due to a high fermentation risk; the use of a preservative is required.

We offer an alternative effective option — own production (at the customer’s enterprise) of liquid plant-based feed using the Maltozim technology. This is a fermented water-grain suspension, in which starch is broken down into mono- and oligosaccharides (glucose and maltose), protein — to peptides and amino acids, and the content of pectins and xylans, which hinder the absorption of nutrients, is reduced.

All biologically active components of the grain are partially or completely converted into easily digestible substances, which is especially useful for young animals of all species, in which the fermentative system is not yet developed.

The resulting fermented feed is distinguished by a pleasant aroma and sweetness, which contributes to increased consumption and digestion of rough feeds by young animals (attractant) and ultimately has a positive effect on weight gains.

When grain molasses is added into the diet, gradual absorption of sugars in the blood takes place, which helps preserve acid balance in the rumen within the limits of the physiological norm. It contributes to high milk productivity of the milking herd, good reproduction and long life cycle.

Maltozim technology makes it possible to produce highly nutritional plant feed with pleasant aroma and sweetness, which contributes to:

  • digestion of rough feeds by young animals (attractant);
  • compensation of the deficit of digestive enzymes. It is especially useful for young animals of all species in which the fermentative system is not yet developed;
  • creation of the optimal medium for development of productive microbiota;
  • normalization of the blood glucose content;
  • maintenance of acid balance in the rumen within the limits of the physiological norm.
Grain molasses according to the Maltozim technology means:
  • availability of raw materials;
  • easily digestible protein;
  • slow digestion of simple sugars.
Proven effect:
  • increase in the average daily weight gain in young animals up to 7%
  • increase in average daily milk yield by up to 8%.

Complex technology for processing of low-availability high-protein byproducts of poultry slaughter.

Industrial poultry breeding is the most dynamically developing and science-intensive field of agriculture, successful development of which requires the creation of a feed base with highly nutritional protein ingredients. Animal-based feeds are rich with proteins, minerals and vitamins. High level of technology development makes it possible to use rationally even keratin-containing down feather from poultry slaughter.

Attractiveness of such waste consists in high protein content (about 85%) including all necessary amino-acids (+sulphur-containing). However, the specific feature of this protein consists in a complex structure with a large number of disulphide bonds of amino acid residues (methionine and cystine) between peptide chains of the protein, which makes it almost unavailable for digestion in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry and animals.

Classic method of production of meat and bone meal from poultry slaughter products demands significant energy costs in order to maintain high temperature mode, as well as create overpressure; this process results in the creation of a feed product of mediocre quality (despite high indicators in the protocols with regard on digestibility of protein in vitro).

Thermal treatment causes loss of protein substances and a whole range of crucially important amino acids, including key amino acids. Sulphur-containing cystine and methionine, which are the main limiting acids for poultry development, are almost completely destroyed.

A cost-efficient alternative to traditional methods of production of meat meal is low-temperature fermentative hydrolysis of poultry slaughter waste with application of the complex technology KERATAZIM® developed by us.

Keratazim is a combination of new engineering-hardware and biochemical methods of processing of raw materials.

This technology makes it possible to obtain a high-quality protein product balanced in terms of its amino acid composition.

As a result of introduction of the new technology, we get:

  • A valuable highly digestible protein product (in vivo) with an increased content of sulphur-containing amino acids methionine + cystine, as well as such essential amino acids as lysine and threonine;
  • The possibility to produce products with the share of raw protein increased by 3–5% due to hydrolysis and extraction of certain natural components of the raw material (e.g., raw fat) from the system. This method makes it possible to extend service life of finished products;
  • Reduction of costs of energy resources in order to maintain high temperature and overpressure in the course of hydrolysis;
  • Re-orientation of production for environmentally clean technologies, which is undoubtedly a trend of today.